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ISSN 2410-7751 (Print)
ISSN 2410-776X (Online)

cover biotech acta general

Biotechnologia Acta Т. 16, No. 3, 2023
P. 5-23, Bibliography 19, Engl.
UDC 637.354

Full text: (PDF, in English)


1 Yuliya Skril, 1Olha Shved, 1Zoriana Hubrii, 2Olena Vichko, 3Teobald Kupka

1 Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, Ukraine
Ternopil Ivan Puluj National Technical University, Ternopil, Ukraine
3Opole University, Institute of Chemistry, Poland

An analytical review of the biotechnological process of production of various hard and semi-hard cheeses in the EU and Ukraine, as well as domestic recipes of fermented cheeses for production at craft cheese factories and at home, was conducted. An analysis of the conditions of the key stages of production, including fermentation, coagulation and ripening, was carried out. The composition and type of lactic acid bacteria in sourdough for fermented cheeses, as well as enzymes for fermentolysis and coagulation of milk casein, were studied. As a result of a complex study, a total of 73 types of hard and semi-hard cheeses were analyzed: 35 recipes of the New England Cheesemaking Supply Company by Jim Wallace; 30 production processes of hard and semi-hard cheeses from the EU; 8 technical conditions of hard cheeses of Ukrainian producers. It is shown that the prospects for optimizing the development of new types of hard and semi-hard cheeses in Ukraine are mainly related to the regulation of the time and temperature of fermentation, cooking and ripening of cheeses, as well as the expansion of the biodiversity of the primary and secondary microbiome of starter cultures to improve the taste and aroma of the ready-to-use product.

Purpose: to analyze the fermentation process and recipes for the production of hard cheeses in Ukraine with the main world samples, to compare the composition and type of lactic acid bacteria in industrial and craft starters, as well as the types of enzymes for fermentolysis and casein coagulation of milk, in order to optimize production to improve the taste and aroma of ready-to-use product.

Materials and methods. Methodical analysis and abstract-logical method for summarizing the evaluation criteria of the biotechnological process of various hard and semi-hard domestic cheeses with world samples according to recommendations, requirements and standards with the development of patents, technical conditions of their production in the EU and Ukraine; DSTU 6003 (Solid cheeses); New England Cheesemaking Supply Company cheese recipes by Jim Wallace. The obtained data were processed by methods of statistical analysis, systematization, comparison and generalization of information.

Results. In this study, the documentation was examined and the data of standards, regulations, requirements and recommendations regarding the biotechnology of hard and semi-hard cheeses were analyzed, an analysis of the market of hard cheeses and the peculiarities of the fermentation process of their production was carried out with the determination of critical points and key stages of production using industrial deposited fermentation producers and protein enzymes coagulation and biodiversity of lactic acid bacteria in sourdoughs for fermented cheeses at world productions, with an assessment of the prospects for developing new and improving the biotechnology of Ukrainian benign and safe hard cheeses for healthy nutrition.

Key words: hard cheese, semihard cheese, acidification, mesophilic and thermophilic lactic bacteria, coagulation, rennet, chymosin, renin, pepsin, cheese maturation, microbiome.  

© Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2023